The Reliability of a Child as an Eyewitness in Court

Judges and other professionals working in the justice system need to be better trained to better understand what types of issues are appropriate for children`s development,78 and to ensure that these professionals are aware of credibility assessment research.79 With respect to background manipulations, This is the area of relative accessibility of literal and essential traces. This can be affected by the recovery tips provided in memory tests and differential forgetting rates. The general principle, of course, is that false memory should increase based on variables that, at the time of memory testing, improve kernel recovery compared to literal retrieval. The increased time between subjects` exposure to target events and the execution of memory tests is a frequently studied example, as many classical experiments show that the ability to access memories of surface details of events decreases more rapidly than the ability to access memories of their semantic content (e.g., Gernsbacher, 1985; Kintsch, Welsch, Schmalhofer and Zimny, 1990). Thus, if memory tests are delayed by a few hours or days after events, an interval in which literal decline is rapid, but memory for meaning content is relatively stable, false semantic memory should increase as kernel retrieval prevails – a prediction that has been confirmed for many types of significant events (for illustrations, see Brainerd, Reyna and Estrada, 2006; Gallo, 2006; Loftus, Miller and Burns, 1978; Payne, Elie, Blackwell and Neuschatz, 1996; Reyna and Kiernan, 1994, 1995; Seamon et al., 2002). In fact, even shorter deadlines can create dramatic differences in false memory when events are so complex — sentences in narratives, for example — that literal memories are hard to remember. The development reversal study by Brainerd and Mojardin (1998) is a typical example. In an earlier study, Reyna and Kiernan (1994) discovered the standard pattern of age loss in children`s false memory for sentences (Tea is colder than coffee) that retained the meaning of sentences that children had actually heard (Coffee is hotter than tea. Tea is hotter than cocoa. Cocoa is sweet.). In their method, the accessibility of literal sentence tracks was maximized by administering test items immediately after the presentation of each three-sentence narrative.

Brainerd and Mojardin used the same procedure, except they increased the time between sentence presentation and memory tests to about two minutes. The result was an increase in the age of false memory rather than a decrease. Networked paradigms, especially DRM illusion, are pretty clear examples of high-language/low-verbatim tasks because, as we`ve seen, they strengthen central memory over literal memory and make it difficult to use literal retrieval to suppress false memories. Therefore, Brainerd et al. (2002) suggested that these paradigms were obvious places to initiate the search for robust and reproducible developmental reversals in false memory, which, once identified, could be used to test theoretical hypotheses about the processes controlling age trends in false memory. This proposal was based on two considerations that we discussed, namely, that (a) children`s known limitations in storing and retrieving even simple semantic content imply that their performance on cohesive tasks is not dominated by the strong basic memories that dominate adult performance, and (b) these tasks minimize the effectiveness of literal memory in suppressing errors (so that improvements related to age in this area does not outweigh the impact of improvements at the baseline level). Memory). These considerations also suggest that it should be possible to directly relate developmental inversions in false memory to two general classes of experimental manipulations: sufficiency manipulations, which are variables that selectively increase false memory in younger subjects (thereby reducing the size of developmental inversions) by compensating for their limitations in nuclear memory. and necessity manipulations, which are variables that selectively decrease false memory in older subjects (thus also reducing the size of developmental reversals) by altering their higher central memory capacities.

We will discuss more about the two heads in the third section of this paper, after describing the cumulative results of the inversion in the next section.